03 November 2022
Linear discriminant analysis reveals hidden patterns in NMR chemical shifts of intrinsically disordered proteins
NMR spectroscopy is key in the study of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Yet, even the first step in such an analysis—the assignment of observed resonances to particular nuclei—is often problematic due to low peak dispersion in the spectra of IDPs. We show that the assignment process can be aided by finding “hidden” chemical shift patterns specific to the amino acid residue types. We find such patterns in the training data from the Biological Magnetic Resonance Bank using linear discriminant analysis, and then use them to classify spin systems in an α-synuclein sample prepared by us. We describe two situations in which the procedure can greatly facilitate the analysis of NMR spectra. The first involves the mapping of spin systems chains onto the protein sequence, which is part of the assignment procedure—a prerequisite for any NMR-based protein analysis. In the second, the method supports assignment transfer between similar samples. We conducted experiments to demonstrate these cases, and both times the majority of spin systems could be unambiguously assigned to the correct residue types.
Dariusz Gołowicz, Alexandra Shchukina, Krzysztof Kazimierczuk
Chemical analysis based on liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy exploits numerous observables, mainly chemical shifts, relaxation rates, and internuclear coupling constants. Regarding the latter, the efficiencies of internuclear coherence transfers may be encoded in spectral peak intensities. The dependencies of these intensities on the experimental parameter that influences the transfer, for example, mixing time, are an important source of structural information. Yet, they are costly to measure and difficult to analyze. Here, we show that peak intensity build-up curves in two-dimensional total correlation spectroscopy (2D TOCSY) experiments may be quickly measured by employing nonuniform sampling and that their analysis can be effective if supported by quantum mechanical calculations. Thus, such curves can be used to form a new, third pseudodimension of the TOCSY spectrum. Similarly to the other two frequency dimensions, this one also resolves ambiguities and provides characteristic information. We show how the approach supports the analysis of a fragment of protein Tau Repeat-4 domain. Yet, its potential applications are far broader, including the analysis of complex mixtures or other polymers.
02 September 2022
The assignment of 11B and 1H resonances in the post-reaction mixture from the dry synthesis of Li(BH3NH2BH2NH2BH3)Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy with Isotropic Mixing as a Pseudodimension
We report a detailed 1H NMR and11B NMR study of as synthesised LiBH3NH2BH2NH2BH3Þobtained in a novel dry-synthesis method. A combination of 1D and 2D single- and triple-quantum techniques was used for the assignment of all observed signals. Minor side-products andreactants were detected in the product: NH3BH3,LiNH2BH3 LiBH4,and two yet unknown salts containing 7-membered chain anions:ðBH3NH2BH2NH2BH2NH2BH3 and BHðNH2BH3 We believe the assignment provided within this study might be helpful when analysing the mixtures containing numerous ammonia borane derivatives, which often give overlapping signals that are hard to distinguish
Design of a D3h-symmetry prismatic tris-(ferrocene-1,1′-diyl) molecular cage bearing boronate ester linkages
Maurycy Krzyżanowski, Anna M. Nowicka, Krzysztof Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof Durka, Sergiusz Luliński and Artur Kasprzak
This paper presents a simple, highly selective, and efficient (isolated yield of 68%) synthesis of a novel D3h-symmetry prismatic tris-(ferrocene-1,1′-diyl) organic cage (FcB-cage) by incorporating a boronate ester as a linkage motif. 1,1′-Diboronated derivatives of ferrocene and 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexahydroxytriphenylene (HHTP) were used as the starting materials. The synthesized cage was comprehensively characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic methods, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and voltammetry. Cyclic voltammetry analysis revealed the electronic communication between the ferrocene units of the FcB-cage. In addition, to better understand the mechanism behind the synthesis of such a cage, as well as its geometric properties, we performed DFT calculations.
Dipole-dipole interactions of sulfone groups as a tool for self-assembly of a 2D Covalent Organic Framework derived from a non-linear diboronic acid
Krzysztof Durka, Krzysztof Kazimierczuk, Sergiusz Luliński
The utility of the nonlinear diboronic acid 2, obtained from 3,7-dibromodibenzo[b,d]thiophene 5,5-dioxide 1, for the preparation of Covalent Organic Frameworks was investigated. Despite significant deviation of boronic groups in 2 from the colinear arrangement, a highly crystalline porous material DBSO-COF was obtained by dehydrative polycondensation with 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexahydroxytriphenylene (HHTP) using a solvothermal approach. Subsequent PXRD studies supported by periodic DFT modelling revealed the formation of the 2D honeycomb-type lattice with eclipsed stacking model. The antiparallel orientation of neighboured layers is strongly favoured owing to dipole-dipole and C–H⋯O interactions of sulfone moieties. This gives the net stabilization energy of 45 kJ mol−1 per single sulfone motif, being primarily responsible for the effective formation of the ordered network and strongly contributing to its thermodynamic stability. The morphology was analyzed by SEM which revealed that the material forms uniform in size ca. 40 × 150 nm rod-like nano-crystallites. The Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation performed on a single nanoparticle of DBSO-COF allowed to reproduce the experimental isotherm. It also showed that N2 molecules are mostly located close to the C–H bonds, while they are repulsed by sulfone groups. Apart from increasing the scope of useful boronic linkers beyond centrosymmetric structures, it was demonstrated that the presence of guest molecules in a porous network should be taken into account in order to obtain a more accurate prediction of porosity parameters.